Friday , April 20 2018
Home / News / Statement on Needed Reform for Pontifical Academies of Science and Social Sciences

Statement on Needed Reform for Pontifical Academies of Science and Social Sciences

You will not be signed in as a Premium consumer; we rely on Premium customers to help our information reporting. Sign in or Sign up today!

Prominent scientists and Catholic leaders have signed an official assertion expressing considerations over the Vatican’s Pontifical Academy of Science and the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences, particularly the worrying development towards selling inhabitants management by way of contraception and abortion. Following is the complete textual content of the assertion.


Reform of the Pontifical Academies of Science: Issue of Human Life and the Environment

Executive Summary

The Catholic Church has an extended historical past of advancing information and acquiring the insights of science to be able to higher pursue Her spiritual mission. The Pontifical Academy of Science (PAS) and the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences (PASS) have been established by 20th century popes to contribute to this necessary process. Recent joint work of each academies has targeted on issues of environmental safety and human health and improvement. These subjects increase issues past strictly scientific issues and enter the realm of coverage, ethics and morality.

In contemplating setting and human improvement, the academies seem to attract on a secular tradition and mindset that overlooks, and in some instances opposes, the Church’s ethical perspective and rules. This tendency comes sharply into focus as a persistent focus on discount of human fertility and inhabitants, which emerges regularly as a beneficial “solution” to a variety of issues. The state of affairs has grow to be a systemic and pressing drawback.

In current years, a number of students, some PAS members, and audio system have publicly endorsed the thought of inhabitants discount via abortion and/or contraception as a way of attaining what they name environmental sustainability. In a 2014 PAS occasion, PAS member Partha Dasgupta advocated for expanded entry to contraception amenities with a view to scale back fertility charges in sub-Saharan Africa.  Later that yr, Prof. Jeffrey Sachs used his platform at a PAS occasion to encourage leveraging the ethical authority of the Catholic Church to help his UN Sustainable Development Goals that are intently tied to ― or truly incorporate ― population-reduction packages. Both of these endorsements have been revealed in official PAS paperwork. The Church doesn’t share these objectives, however the Church’s voice within the discussion board the place these concepts are raised has been weak or silent.

The supposed justification for current actions of PAS and PASS that promote human inhabitants and fertility discount look like based mostly on concern about speedy inhabitants will increase of the previous, moderately than present demographic realities. Large elements of the world at the moment are experiencing extreme challenges from getting older (lack of younger) or declining human populations, however the packages to scale back fertility are nonetheless promoted in pressing phrases. Scholarship must be based mostly on correct notion whether it is to be helpful.  

It is the honest hope of the signers of this doc that the ecclesial authorities accountable for the integrity of the PAS and PASS and the constant educating of the Catholic religion will rigorously and prayerfully think about the issues we’ve recognized and the suggestions we’ve made.  Because of the gravely critical nature of the issues recognized herein, the truth is that leaving these issues unaddressed could possibly be disastrous; human lives, and extra importantly, immortal souls, are at nice danger.

Statement of the Issue

The Catholic Church and Science

1. The Catholic Church is an establishment based by Christ to show and proclaim the Gospel, to manage the sacraments for the expansion in holiness of its members, and to convey concerning the redemption of the world in Christ.

2. The mission of the Church is to make disciples of all nations, baptizing them within the identify of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost (Mt. 28:19). As this sacred mission is fulfilled all through the world, the social, financial and political character of nations are reworked by the motion of God’s grace. However, Our Blessed Lord made clear that there’s a distinction between the mission of the Church and the works of civil authority (Mk. 12:17, Mt 22:21). The Church’s position shouldn’t be “… to propose concrete political solutions, which would lie altogether outside the competence of religion – but rather to help purify and shed light upon the application of reason to the discovery of objective moral principles.”

three. In finishing up Her mission, the Church has all the time sought out and valued the real insights and specialised information of science and scholarly work generally.

four. To help in acquiring scientific information for human betterment and the larger glory of God, the Church fostered the event of the college. Starting centuries in the past, popes sponsored a scholarly academy to convey the newest insights of numerous sciences to Her consideration.

5. The present Pontifical Academy of Science (PAS, established 1936) and Pontifical Academy of Social Science (PASS, established 1994) are advisory teams charged with offering empirical findings to the Church with out regard to the spiritual background (or lack of such) of its members. Expertise in faith, philosophy, or theology is just not a criterion for appointment to the PAS, and these topics usually are not specific competencies of their work.  

6. The PAS consists of 80 members nominated by present members and appointed by the Holy Father. Existing PASS members nominate unusual academicians who’re appointed by the Holy Father, and who serve till age 80, when they could be appointed by the Holy Father as honorary academicians based mostly on competencies within the social sciences and of their ethical integrity. The PAS has a mandate in six areas, together with elementary science; Science and know-how of international issues; Science for the issues of the creating world; Scientific coverage; Bioethics; and Epistemology. PAS claims “… complete freedom in method and research…” as a “source of objective information upon which the Holy See and its various bodies can draw.”

7. Recent popes have taken a eager curiosity in questions of insurance policies and actions associated to the surroundings, most just lately expressed in Pope Francis’ encyclical Laudato Si’

eight. In the previous few years, the Pontifical Academies have sponsored a collection of conferences on themes of the setting, together with organic extinction, human health and the setting, and integral human improvement.

9. Increasingly, as their work on environmental subjects has grow to be a extra outstanding half of their agenda, the Pontifical Academies have broadened the subjects of assessments and studies into normative issues of which environmental insurance policies must be adopted.

10. However, science can’t “prove” ethical positions. Scientific devices, measurements, or fashions can’t show that human individuals have rights ― that they need to be handled in a sure means and not be abused in different methods.  That’s not what science is meant to do. Such questions are within the realm of faith and morality.

The Pontifical Academies and Population Policy

11. In common, there’s a notable relationship between policy-related suggestions that emerge from the Academies and the social consensus of the fashionable, extremely secular tradition of analysis establishments their members are drawn from. This slender tradition, troubled with worrisome indicators of intolerance of numerous viewpoints and real debate, can’t be relied on to offer the complete scope and depth of considering which the Church wants in addressing the ethical elements of setting/human improvement insurance policies. 

12. A outstanding theme that may be discovered within the works of specialists consulted by the Pontifical Academies has been a constant, even zealous, tendency to determine “excessive” human inhabitants as the elemental trigger of environmental issues. Even some Academy paperwork mirror these ideologies. In simplified media accounts of this problem, the near-term prospect of a speedy improve in human inhabitants is usually cited as a kind of ultimate stage of environmental destruction. However, extensively obtainable info from dependable demographic research and reviews demonstrates that the current degree of births globally could be very almost secure now and more likely to decline additional for a while to return.

13. Many societies, extensively distributed throughout the Earth, have reached such low fertility ranges that the loss of cultures, that are a big heritage of your complete human household, is a really actual risk.

14. Manifestations of the terribly low and unsustainable human fertility ranges in a lot of the world already are apparent relating to issues reminiscent of financial stagnation, unsustainable future monetary obligations for debt and old-age retirement, lack of assets to care for the dependent aged, and the challenges of coping with giant scale inhabitants alternative by the inflow of new individuals.

15. The charitable works of the Catholic Church prolong all the best way again to the origins of the Faith and are rightly considered a one of the Church’s main contribution to human civilization. However, the implied message in some of the Academies’ human improvement and environmental suggestions is that with a view to foster true environmental safety, the Church must endorse a state position to scale back inhabitants per se as a social duty. A misunderstanding of paragraph 2372 of the Catechism of the Catholic Church has even been cited as a justification: “I need to say that additionally within the Catechism of the Church it says…the state has a duty for its residents’ well-being. In this capability, it’s professional for it to intervene to orient the demography of the inhabitants.”

Justifying Population Reduction Through Human Development and Environmental Protection

16. Recognizing that the idea of eliminating future human life to foster environmental safety normally is an unattractive prospect at greatest. International organizations more and more make suggestions which might be an built-in combine of human improvement and environmental objectives. A big share of what’s described as integral or sustainable human improvement is focused on the few remaining areas of above alternative degree fertility, particularly sub-Saharan Africa.

17. Many outstanding organizers and audio system at Academy conferences have a constant document of advocating for strategies of inhabitants management, together with abortion, contraception and sterilization, in direct contravention to clear Catholic ethical educating. Examples of the advocacy of illicit approaches to inhabitants discount may even be present in paperwork revealed by the Pontifical Academies themselves. For instance: 

There might be no query however that empowerment of women, a fascinating finish in itself, lowers fertility, different issues being equal. There can be little question that entry to contraception amenities would assist issues (Royal Society, 2012). But different issues will not be equal, and there are options of African societies that encourage excessive fertility.”

18. The Pontifical Academies routinely state that they’re unbiased (self-selecting) our bodies that don’t converse for the Church, thus correctly permitting them to pose interpretations of information that may be at variance with established Church educating. But clearly, they typically rely on ambiguity or confusion within the public on this crucial level to recommend ethical legitimacy for their proposed societal insurance policies and measures.

19. Despite certified denials or selective silence of some individuals within the actions of Pontifical Academies, fertility discount persistently figures in reviews and conferences, typically implicitly within the very perspective taken on a problem. This is especially so within the use of phrases for convention titles and reviews that embrace environmental safety and human improvement objectives or methods. In common, there’s an unwillingness to take full duty for what is definitely being pursued or advocated – inhabitants limitation underneath many types, together with beneath numerous varieties of inducement or coercion by morally objectionable means.  

20. A key theme in current examination and suggestions of environmental and human improvement subjects has been “sustainability” or “sustainable development.” These considerably ambiguous phrases have much less credibility in scientific ecology than within the international social or financial coverage area. Significantly, a quantity of advocates of sustainable improvement insist that downward manipulation of human copy via abortion and incentivized contraception are important elements of sustainability.

Advocating Sustainable Development Goals to Endorse Population Reduction

21. Many of these problematic issues are mirrored within the place and affect within the Pontifical Academies given to Dr. Jeffrey Sachs, whose promotion of inhabitants discount is present in almost each facet of his work. In specific, as the first architect of the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations, he’s one of the main designers and advocates for inhabitants discount focused towards the poor. A quantity of quotes from Sachs’ ebook, The End of Poverty, underline this level.

A) Sachs applauded the contraceptive measures carried out in Bangladesh to scale back excessive fertility charges:

“The jobs for women in the cities and in rural off-farm microenterprises; a new spirit of women’s rights and independence and empowerment; dramatically reduced rates of child mortality; rising literacy of girls and young women; and, crucially, the availability of family planning and contraception have made all the difference for these women.  There is no single explanation for the dramatic, indeed historic, reduction in desired rates of fertility:  it is the combination of new ideas, better public health for mothers and children, and improved economic opportunities for women. The reduced fertility rates, in turn, will fuel Bangladesh’s rising incomes.  With fewer children, a poor household can invest more in the health and education of each child, thereby equipping the next generation with the health, nutrition, and education that can lift Bangladesh’s living standards in future years.” (web page 14).

B) Other passages from his e-book present that his whole blueprint for decreasing poverty is the discount of fertility charges:

“Modern contraception has contributed to a dramatic reduction in total fertility rates, from a world average of 5.0 children per woman in the period 1950 to 1955 to 2.8 children per woman in the period 1995 to 2000.  Family planning programs have played an enormous role in providing advice and information, advocating and assisting in the empowerment of women, and promoting modern contraception, although many other factors (women’s literacy, women’s entry into the nonfarm labor force, reduced child mortality, and urbanization) have played important roles. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) was established in 1969 to help coordinate this effort, and it currently operates in 140 countries. It has helped to spur a massive increase in the use of modern contraceptives among couples in developing countries, rising from an estimated 10 to 15 percent of couples in 1970 to an estimated 60 percent in 2000. This program has been an example of scaling up par excellence, but the unmet needs are still massive, since funding for contraceptive availability in the poorest countries is far below needed levels.” (pages 279-280)

“As mothers find improved economic opportunities out of the house-hold and off the farm, the time expense of raising children (in terms of lost wage income) rises as well. And, of course, as households are able to obtain modern health services, including family planning and modern contraceptives, they are able to follow through on their changing desires about family size. All of these factors explain why most of the world has achieved a marked reduction of total fertility rates and a sharp slowdown in population growth.  This phenomenon has not yet come to rural Africa, where the enabling conditions—child survival, girls’ education, women’s job opportunities, access to water and modern cooking fuels, and access to family planning and contraception—are not yet in place.  The investments to end extreme poverty in Africa (and elsewhere) are the very same investments that will produce a rapid and decisive drop in fertility rates in a short period of time.”  – (web page 342)

22. Strikingly, a quantity of present fashions for the implementation of sustainable improvement with which the Pontifical Academies have related themselves incorporate illicit packages for inhabitants discount. In this regard, it’s notable that inhabitants discount/elimination is usually combined with true humanitarian objectives in suggestions throughout fields as numerous as pure useful resource administration, human health, and financial reforms. The Sustainable Development Goals, and their predecessors, the Millennium Development Goals, all comply with the identical mannequin established in Dr. Sachs’ guide. The Sustainable Development Goals at present embrace spreading contraception as a way of decreasing fertility charges.

Goal three.7 “By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programs.”  

Goal 5 “Implementation and accessibility of the Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights to women and girls globally.” 

The Church Does Not Share Goals with Population Reduction or Elimination Programs

23. Given the involvement of the Pontifical Academies in these subjects, a extremely problematic state of affairs has been created by which an obvious objective is to persuade the Catholic Church to offer ethical authority and weight to the adoption and implementation of the SDGs. This will inevitably embrace their morally objectionable elements. There is a transparent and current hazard to the salvation of souls all through the world by implying that there is usually a widespread curiosity between the Church’s social educating and secular humanitarian objectives which embrace morally illicit discount of human fertility charges and inhabitants.  Dr. Sachs has stated:

“I personally believe that the social doctrines of the Church offer a global inspiration on these issues, across the major religions. I refer to Church social teachings that, in my mind, are fundamentally in line with Sustainable Development and the SDGs.” … “In the final analysis, we do not face an economic, technological, or financial crisis. We face a moral crisis. If we can rally our spirit, the rest will follow. As Pope Francis has powerfully put it, we face the “Globalization of Indifference”. The SDGs (and different international aims) will help us to over-come that indifference. By partaking international society by means of clear international objectives, and by infusing these objectives with a shared ethical underpinning, humanity in our time can step again from the environmental precipice. We can obtain prosperity, social belief, and a protected planet. Indeed, some other course of motion would threaten our very survival. Our course have to be one of hope, cooperation, compassion, and constructive motion.”

24. In current conferences, the Pontifical Academies of Science and Social Sciences have included invites to outstanding political figures.  While this can be a completely official factor to do when the topic warrants it, the current improve within the position of political figures in Academy conferences runs the danger of politicizing what is meant to be scientific occasions.   

25. A specific concern is the dominant to unique choice of politicians whose ethical attitudes and philosophies are in direct battle with Catholic educating. Catholic lay trustworthy discover it troublesome and disturbing for public officers or workplace seekers who work immediately, persistently, and vigorously towards Church educating on grave issues of life and household to be given a platform at a Vatican-sponsored occasion. A quantity of current examples illustrate this level. At the newest PAS occasion, political figures Jerry Brown, Kevin de Leon, Scott Peters, and Lise Van Susteren have been all given a platform to talk.

A) During his 2010 marketing campaign for governor of California, Jerry Brown stated, “I have also been an uncompromising champion of a woman’s right to choose.”  In 2013, as Brown signed a invoice into regulation that expanded entry to abortion by permitting nurses to carry out non-surgical abortions, he wrote “This provides good value for patients of modest means.”

B) Kevin de Leon, at present operating for US Senate, highlights on his marketing campaign web site his help for federal funding for the most important abortion retail chain in America, Planned Parenthood Federation of America.  He has a 100% score from Planned Parenthood, NARAL Pro-Choice America, and the California Abortion and Reproductive Rights League.  In 2015, de Leon stated, “Planned Parenthood is the most trusted women’s health care provider in this country, and has provided safe high-quality care to both women and men for nearly 100 years.”

C) Scott Peters has co-sponsored a number of payments within the US House of Representatives that might increase entry to abortion and contraceptive start discount.  Representative Peters took the acute step of voting towards the Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act, which might have prohibited abortions after 20 weeks gestational age.

D) Lise Van Susteren, a psychiatrist, ran for the US Senate in Maryland in 2005.  During her marketing campaign, Van Susteren offered robust and persistent help for abortion as a authorized proper, and stated she holds “a special contempt” for politicians who’ve blocked the enlargement of embryonic stem-cell analysis.

The Catholic lay trustworthy, anxious to evolve their lives to the teachings of Christ and the Church, might nicely ask why such people are being given a platform within the Vatican to affect others to reside in opposition to the Gospel of Life.

Protecting Vulnerable Human Life and Protecting the Environment

26. The reputable considerations of the Pontifical Academies relating to the surroundings and the wants of human improvement mirror a welcome try to satisfy a said PAS objective of “Achieving a task for science which includes the promotion of justice, improvement, solidarity, peace, and the decision of battle.” However, the trajectory of work by the Academies has regularly however persistently injected a inhabitants discount objective or bias into its analyses and reviews. This has created a confrontation with a elementary orientation of the Church towards the worth of human life. As Pope Benedict states in his 2009 Encyclical Caritas in Veritate (44):

“The notion of rights and duties in improvement should additionally take account of the issues related to inhabitants progress. This is an important facet of genuine improvement, because it considerations the inalienable values of life and the household. To think about inhabitants improve as the first trigger of underdevelopment is mistaken, even from an financial level of view.

27. Pope Francis identifies a logical contradiction within the encyclical Laudato Si’ of mobilizing concern for weak life on the planet whereas on the similar time advocating the elimination of weak human life in its early levels:

“Since everything is interrelated, concern for the protection of nature is also incompatible with the justification of abortion. How can we genuinely teach the importance of concern for other vulnerable beings, however troublesome or inconvenient they may be, if we fail to protect a human embryo, even when its presence is uncomfortable and creates difficulties?” (LS 120)

28. In direct contradiction with the inhabitants management agendas of a number of present PAS members and many PAS audio system and individuals, Pope Francis made clear in Laudato Si’ that:

Instead of resolving the issues of the poor and considering of how the world may be totally different, some can solely suggest a discount within the delivery price. At occasions, creating nations face types of worldwide strain which make financial help contingent on sure insurance policies of “reproductive health”. Yet “while it is true that an unequal distribution of the population and of available resources creates obstacles to development and a sustainable use of the environment, it must nonetheless be recognized that demographic growth is fully compatible with an integral and shared development”.[28] To blame inhabitants progress as an alternative of excessive and selective consumerism on the half of some, is a method of refusing to face the issues.” (LS50)

“Christian thought sees human beings as possessing a specific dignity above different creatures; it thus inculcates esteem for every individual and respect for others. …. Our relationship with the surroundings can by no means be remoted from our relationship with others and with God.” (LS119)


29. The Catholic Church exists for the salvation of souls. She has an extended historical past of sponsoring and conducting scientific analysis, schooling, and human development. The establishment of the Pontifical Academies of Science and Social Sciences are a helpful and useful discussion board for dialog with the Church concerning the newest and most superior findings on troublesome and difficult issues in addition to information of thrilling discoveries.

30. Since the time instantly after her basis by Christ, the Church has all the time described Herself as “… one, holy, Catholic, and apostolic …” In secular phrases, that is manifested as a worldwide, unified, but multicultural establishment that professes and teaches a standard Faith. These are engaging traits for these wishing to leverage international issues or impact change on a worldwide scale.

31. The world faces a quantity of critical challenges from issues referring to the surroundings. Resolving these challenges and offering the circumstances for human life to thrive is each a problem of scientific, technical, and social/financial experience and a matter of human capability, will, and morality. Secular efforts to deal with such challenges all the time face the query of the ethical and moral steerage to be adopted, and certainly the ever-present temptation to droop ethical and moral rules in pursuit of fast outcomes for what’s perceived to be a bigger good. Even packages aimed toward addressing humanitarian wants can include unjust, ineffective, or morally unacceptable parts. Globally organized packages of human improvement and environmental safety or administration have been notably susceptible to this drawback.

32. A continual drawback within the operation of the Academies just lately has turn into acute. The Pontifical Academies, of their focus on issues of international environmental challenges and human improvement, have been importing secularist values, views, and philosophies into paperwork and statements of the Academies, making it seem as if the Church was morally unsure and is holding open totally different views on core teachings on the coronary heart of Gospel educating on issues of grave significance. The Church can’t settle for, particularly implicitly, that humanity can contracept and abort its strategy to a wholesome setting, financial system, or society.

33. The drawback just isn’t the secularist scientists or economists of the Pontifical Academies as a lot as it’s the Church supervision of the Academies. The membership of the Academies don’t supply ethical experience. Yet the management of the Pontifical Academies persistently engages in selective invitation of specialists who’re main advocates of morally problematic approaches, and supplies a privileged discussion board for their views, which inevitably carries an implied endorsement by the Church. This sample confuses Catholic lay trustworthy and those that observe the Church from the surface, and must be reformed earlier than a digital counter magisterium is about up beneath the sponsorship the Church Herself.

34. By distinction, the Catholic Church, by Her very nature, should all the time fulfill Her distinctive position as a protector of harmless human life. The Church did so, towards the consensus of the worldwide scientific, technical, and coverage elites of the day, within the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. In our time, Church leaders face the identical temptation to stay silent on issues associated to inhabitants management so as to protect the great opinion of scientific, technical, and financial cultures that usually maintain the Church’s mission in low regard. If this have been to occur, Church leaders would then place human dignity and freedom in danger, most particularly regard for the worth of unrepeatable, particular person human individuals.


35. This assertion and the next suggestions are being provided in respectful accord with paragraph 899 of the Catechism of the Catholic Church: “The initiative of lay Christians is necessary especially when the matter involves discovering or inventing the means for permeating social, political, and economic realities with the demands of Christian doctrine and life. This initiative is a normal element of the life of the Church:”

36. In that spirit, we provide the next suggestions to deal with the issues recognized within the previous assertion. We anticipate that implementing such reforms of the Pontifical Academies of Sciences and Social Sciences will materially help the important contribution of the Catholic Church relating to the intense issues of correct care of creation and of true human thriving inside it:  

A. Re-establish the right relationship between science per se and the spiritual mission of the Church. Disavow any moral shortcuts in addressing environmental challenges. Discontinue the consideration of integral improvement/environmental insurance policies which might be intrinsically disordered of their view of human dignity and value.

B. Regain belief with Catholic students by opening the dialogue to the complete vary of views on environmental issues, notably insurance policies/options. Prove that one doesn’t should surrender the Faith to supply science valued by the Church.

C. Reform the requirements for choice of students to take part in PAS and PASS occasions in order that infamous advocates for issues or positions in direct battle with the Church’s ethical teachings usually are not offered a platform to advance such objectives.

D. Focus on the necessity to perceive, incorporate, and higher apply empirical info on the present, precise state of human demographic tendencies within the work of the Pontifical Academies relatively than alarmist assumptions of previous many years.

E. Reform the administration of the Pontifical Academies to see that future issues of biased consideration of subjects of broad social significance are prevented, and particularly that the Church lives out Her mission in all Her work with integrity and shouldn’t be obtainable for use, even not directly, for ethically questionable functions it doesn’t matter what the consensus of famous figures in secular tradition.


Dr. Glenn Patrick Juday, Fairbanks, Alaska

Jay H. Lehr, Ph.D. Senior Scientist at AR Environmental Services Inc. and Science Director at The Heartland Institute

William M. Briggs, Ph.D. Professor on the Cornell Medical School and Meteorologist with the National Weather Service

Hal Doiron, Ph.D. Retired NASA Scientist

Dr. Paul Byrne, Neonatologist and President of Life Guardian Foundation

Harold H. Doiron, PhD, Pearland Texas

Michael Hichborn, President, Lepanto Institute and member of the John Paul II Academy for Human Life and Family

Judie Brown, President of American Life League Inc. and member of the Board of Advisors of the John Paul II Academy for Human Life and Family

Elizabeth Yore, Esq. 

Dr. Brian Clowes, Director of Research and Training, Human Life International

John Smeaton, Chief Executive of the Society for the Protection of Unborn Children

Raymond de Souza, KM


Have a news tip? Submit news to our tip line.

We rely on you to help our information reporting. Please donate at this time.

Source link

Check Also

Midwife pushes for better access to care for expectant mothers

ORLANDO, Fla. – A women’s health clinic is elevating consciousness about access to maternal healthcare. Jennie …

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *